The current situation of machine replacement in th

  • Detail

Find out the current situation of "machine replacement" in the textile industry: it will change the employment structure of the industry

recently, a project called "U" on GitHub has quickly become popular, and 182000 stars have been received. This project means "work 996, sick ICU", "996", that is, the working status of employees in many enterprises, working from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m., working six days a week

CCTV said that the working hours of "996", whether there is overtime pay or not, have violated the labor law. The first impression of this working system is that enterprises squeeze employees

in the consumer market, there are two important methodologies to judge whether enterprises infringe on the interests of consumers: is there competition? Is consumer sovereignty still there? If the answer to these two questions is yes, I don't think there is a big problem

similarly, there are two methodologies on overtime and wages: is the enterprise in a competitive state in the labor market? Can job seekers choose? If these two answers are yes, then the problem will not be too serious

the implementation of the irregular working system in China requires the approval of the relevant supervision departments. Therefore, the law enforcement departments also need to respect the diversified business forms of the market and make appropriate adjustments. Only legal and clear overtime can make those illegal and vague overtime more obvious, so as to better regulate

the traditional textile industry is a type industry. Because of the particularity of the industry, it has to lengthen the working hours to control the machine operation cost. Most employees' working hours are "876". There is basically no other life in a day except work

in order to solve the problem of workers' working hours, the textile industry has also gradually promoted the "" project. Today, let's find out:

find out the current situation of "machine replacement" in the textile industry

with the development of China's economy, there is a "machine replacement" upsurge in the textile industry, which uses automation and equipment to replace manual labor. What has this boom brought to the industry? What's the problem? Is there a trend change in the industrial workforce? In order to deeply understand the current situation of "machine replacement" in the textile industry, the China finance, trade, light textile and tobacco Union recently went deep into Jiangsu, Fujian, Henan, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shandong and other key areas of textile industry development, selected representative enterprises such as spinning, chemical fiber, weaving, clothing and so on to carry out special research, and clarified some basic information of "machine replacement" in the textile industry

difficult recruitment and expensive labor force the textile industry to "replace people with machines"

the traditional textile industry is a labor-intensive industry. With the gradual disappearance of China's demographic dividend, it is urgent. Mechanization, automation and intelligence have become effective ways to transform traditional industries, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, reduce staff and increase efficiency, and alleviate the difficulty of recruitment, which has also opened the curtain of "machine replacement" in the textile industry

the report shows that the rising labor costs and the long-term structural shortage of workers in the industry have become one of the main drivers of "machine replacement" in the textile industry

in recent years, the growth rate of labor remuneration has been accelerating. Enterprises have to raise the wages of employees 1 to 2 times a year, and enterprises obviously feel the increasing pressure of employment. The development of the textile industry requires a large number of skilled textile workers and skilled workers. The eastern part of China is traditionally a province with labor flowing into it, and there is a gap in the local labor supply, while skilled workers in the central and western provinces who go out to work return, resulting in textile enterprises, especially in the eastern part, generally facing the dilemma of "labor shortage". At the same time, due to the high intensity of work in the textile industry and the high mobility of employees, especially the young workers of the post-85 and post-90 generation are unwilling to engage in monotonous, repetitive and labor-intensive types of work, and the front-line workers cannot be effectively supplemented, which also makes many textile enterprises lack jobs for a long time, forcing enterprises to "replace people with machines". Taking some textile enterprises in southern Jiangsu as an example, enterprises face about 10% of the labor shortage every year

at the same time, industrial upgrading and high development of the textile industry demand, "machine replacement" has become the general trend. The survey shows that the quality of textiles is the competitiveness of enterprises, but the current development of textile quality in China is not optimistic. The instability of quality exists not only between different enterprises and regions, but also between different batches of products within enterprises, which directly affects the market competitiveness of products. In promoting the stable quality of products and achieving high-quality development, intelligent robot production has incomparable advantages over manual production

the report points out that at present, the strategic deployment of "2025" and "industry 4.0", as well as the "national plan" and the corresponding incentive policies issued by the state and local governments to support the upgrading of equipment, together constitute the background for the textile industry to achieve "machine replacement" intelligent manufacturing. Due to the problem of labor costs and the impact of the trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), manufacturing powers in Europe and the United States have shifted their focus to India, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other countries. Whether it is human capital, equipment or technology, Chinese textiles have been challenged by Southeast Asian countries; At the same time, although many enterprises have introduced foreign advanced equipment, it is still unable to change the current situation of relatively backward technology in the industry. Therefore, "machine replacement" is imperative

"machine replacement" for energy conservation and efficiency increase in the textile industry

this survey has thoroughly investigated the effectiveness of "machine replacement" in some sub sectors of the textile industry. The report shows:

1 Cotton textile industry. The large-scale technical transformation of blowing carding unit and simple blowing carding unit, high-efficiency coarsening, high-efficiency tight spinning long car, automatic winder, etc. has been carried out, and the yarn quality index, average labor per 10000 spindles, energy saving and consumption reduction have reached a new level mentioned by Li Keqiang in the government work report. In particular, the application of spinning intelligent doffer greatly reduces the labor intensity of spinning workers, and the labor force can be reduced by 40% of the stretching space. The distance between the two pillars (mm): more than 450. Taking Changyuan textile company in Changle City, Fujian Province as an example, the original 10 spinning workshops were technically transformed, and full-automatic production lines were introduced. The number of workers was reduced from 504 to 317, and the monthly wage per capita was increased by 1000 yuan

2. Chemical fiber industry. Through the transformation of intelligent technologies such as flexible technology, energy conservation and consumption reduction, the level of product differentiation, quality performance and production efficiency are significantly improved, and the number of employees is greatly reduced. Taking Fujian Baihong group as an example, after the implementation of "machine replacement", the labor of automatic wire dropping process is reduced by 70%, and the labor of automatic packaging process is reduced by 80%; The renewal cost of automatic packaging equipment can be recovered in 3 to 4 years if there is a clear gap between us and the world's advanced level

3. Functional textiles. Enterprises have introduced a large number of high-performance automatic machines, flat knitting machines, large circular machines and supporting equipment, and developed various functional products for clothing, shoe materials, home textiles and industrial use, which have adapted to the trend of market demand at home and abroad. Taking Fujian Jinjiang Huayu Weaving Co., Ltd. as an example, 400 automatic warp knitting machines were introduced at one time, and the number of lathe workers was reduced from more than 800 to more than 200; Upgrade from 1 to 2 machines per capita to 5 machines per capita; The monthly wage has increased significantly from about 4000 yuan per capita, and the monthly wage income of the best skilled workers can reach nearly 10000 yuan

4. Shoes and clothing manufacturing. Pay attention to the improvement of design concept and intelligent manufacturing, constantly strengthen the function, art and fashion design of clothing, and significantly improve the level of design, sewing, processing and finishing. Qipai, qipilang, jiumuwang, Jinba and other advantageous enterprises use robots to replace manual cloth laying, and implement logistics process automation, which greatly reduces labor intensity and improves production efficiency

5.。 From the experience of advanced regions, after the implementation of "machine replacement" in printing and dyeing enterprises, the water consumption per 10000 yuan of industrial added value of enterprises has decreased by more than 15%, the energy consumption has decreased by more than 17%, the discharge of industrial wastewater has decreased by more than 10%, the water reuse rate has reached 52.7%, and the labor cost has been saved by nearly 60%

small and medium-sized enterprises face many difficulties in "machine replacement". The report shows that "machine replacement" has incomparable advantages in replacing labor to improve productivity, but there are still many difficulties for the majority of textile enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises

first of all, the one-time investment of "machine replacement" is high, and the enterprise is short of funds and difficult to finance. The enterprise would rather maintain the status quo than invest a huge amount of money. More than half of the enterprises surveyed have invested more than 10million yuan, and the highest is even more than 100 million yuan. In addition, in recent years, enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, have been deterred from "machine replacement" by factors such as rising financing costs and financing difficulties. At the same time, the layout of plants and production lines of some old and small enterprises cannot provide enough space for the equipment upgrading of "machine replacement", and the transformation, expansion and even new construction of plants will further increase the cost of "machine replacement". At present, the state is promoting deleveraging, reducing leverage and reducing the overall debt ratio. The amount of loans available to banks has been significantly reduced, the financing cost is high, and only the amount has no funds. In order to maintain normal operation and ensure cash flow, enterprises are unwilling to invest in large-scale equipment and high-tech equipment

secondly, government supporting policies need to be further detailed. For example, according to the survey, Henan Province has issued the three-year action plan for the development of intelligent manufacturing and industrial interconnection in Henan Province (year), which will promote the "machine replacement" plan in the coal, chemical, food and other industries, and plans to build 50 provincial-level intelligent factories every year. However, the Henan provincial government has no specific support policies for the textile industry, and the cities have no clear support policies. Insufficient policy and financial support has led to enterprises' weak willingness to "replace people with machines"

thirdly, the domestic production level still cannot meet the needs of high-quality textile production, and the machinery is expensive, which extends the recovery cycle of capital investment and increases the maintenance cost of daily equipment. Research shows that the improvement of digitalization and intelligence of equipment is not like the simple and extensive technical transformation in the past, which can be completed by imitation or commissioned trial production. Instead, enterprises need to rely more on the joint cooperation of universities and automation equipment research units to comprehensively integrate the process flow to the overall production process. There are many uncertainties in the R & D process

fourth, the cultural and technical level of employees in textile enterprises is relatively low, and there is a serious shortage of technical personnel. After the introduction of automation equipment, the demand for all kinds of technical personnel will increase sharply. Textile enterprises need to train or introduce high-level technical personnel, which is undoubtedly a great burden

fifth, the wages of textile workers in the central and western regions are low, and the subjective will of enterprises to "replace people with machines" is not strong. For example, Anyang City, Henan province implements the monthly minimum wage standard of 1600 yuan and the hourly minimum wage standard of 15 yuan. There is basically no labor shortage in the local area. Even if there is an occasional labor shortage, you can generally find enough people after appropriately raising wages

"machine replacement" will change the employment structure of the industry

since the first industrial revolution, the replacement of labor by machine has become an irreversible trend. The "machine replacement" in modern manufacturing directly turns machines into labor. Has it had a great impact on the traditional labor market and enterprise employment

the research report believes that the labor-intensive characteristics of the textile industry will not change in the short term. According to the survey, at present, "machine replacement" is not implemented in the whole production process of an industry or an enterprise, but in some production rings of an industry or enterprise

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI